Global climate change is having temporary and permanent, negative and positive effects on Bangladesh as well. This phenomenon of environmental catastrophe due to climate change has been identified as a long-term problem in the (National Environment Management Action Plan or NEMAP) prepared by the Bangladesh Ministry of Forests and Environment in the nineties.
What is climate?
Climate is the average weather of 30-35 years in an area or geographical area. Rapid climate change is a casual phenomenon in today’s world. As a result of this climate change, the earth’s temperature is slowly rising, which is better known as global warming. In scientific terms, this is called the greenhouse effect. Due to the increase in global temperature, various types of disasters are increasing such as heavy rains, droughts, flash floods, droughts, tidal surges, cyclones etc. As a result, the amount of loss of knowledge and property is increasing. Due to this, crores of rupees are being wasted every year.
Climate change caused by global warming is having a devastating effect on the world’s natural environment. As a result of these changes, sea surface warming is increasing and the seasonal continuity of the weather is being disrupted. For this reason, Bangladesh is one of the countries in the world that will be affected. The main reason is the geographical location of Bangladesh, socio-economic infrastructure and dependence on natural resources. Climate change will severely damage all sectors of Bangladesh, especially infrastructure, health, housing, agricultural production, natural environment, all public welfare services, and food security, which will hamper our sustainable socio-economic development process and economic activities.
The Effects of Climate Change
The impact of climate change has been greatest in agriculture. Countries with agricultural economies are being adversely affected. In the last century, the amount of carbon dioxide has increased by 23%, the amount of nitrous oxide has increased by 19% and the amount of methane has increased by 100%. In order to survive, people have to struggle with various adversities. The biggest adversity or threat of the present time is climate change. The part of the population that suffers the most from this change is poor. Due to the coastal geographical location, overpopulated population, insufficient natural resources and over-reliance on it, etc., the danger of Bangladesh is very dire. There is an urgent need to raise awareness at all levels to protect Bangladesh from the potential damage of climate change.
Climate change is a regular natural phenomenon. But greatly influenced by human actions. Various human activities have accelerated climate change. The world is warming and developing countries like Bangladesh are changing the type of weather and the seasons.
Climate change in Bangladesh has already begun. According to a research report published in the year 2000, the coast of Cox’s Bazar is 7.8 mm per year. Sea level rise has been observed at a rate. In the last four decades, about three thousand square kilometers of Bhola Island have been submerged in seawater. Reviewing various research reports, it can be seen that by 2100, the sea level is 1 m. May be high, which may submerge 18.3 percent of the total area of Bangladesh.
According to the Department of Public Health Engineering, the water level in the Upper Barind area of Rajshahi was 48 feet in 1991, 62 feet in 2000 and 93.34 feet in 2007. Normal floods inundated about 20 percent of the country’s total area. Currently, both the number and intensity of floods have increased. Strong cyclones Nargis and Aila hit just two years after the catastrophic cyclone Sidr struck on November 15, 2007, and Mahasen (partially) struck in May 2013, disrupting agriculture.
In order to adapt to these adverse climatic conditions, various adaptive techniques need to be adopted, especially to keep agriculture free from the harmful effects of climate change or to reduce the risk. In addition, disaster relief can be offset by increasing crop diversification and crop density during disaster-free times.
Causes of climate change
- Continental drift b. Volcanic eruption c. Earth’s speed changes d. Ocean currents e. Cyclone
- Increasing the amount of carbon dioxide / carbon emissions b. Use of mineral fuels c. Increase in nitrous oxide in air d. Destroy the hill e. Wilderness desolation
Impact of Floods on Agriculture
About 4,000 sq km in the northeast and 1,400 sq km in the southeast are the victims of such flash floods. Monsoon floods do not cause problems in coastal areas. But its impact is very high in flood-prone areas. In addition to crops, it causes extensive damage to life and property. Tidal floods cause extensive damage to coastal areas. Saline water in the land causes waterlogging, which is unsuitable for crop cultivation. Districts like Sunamganj, Sylhet, Netrokona, Nilphamari etc. were affected by the flash floods. Thousands of acres of ripe boro paddy are affected by flash floods every year before the mature crop is harvested. About 4,000 sq km in the northeast and 1,400 sq km in the southeast are the victims of such flash floods. Although Bangladesh is rich in water resources, the incidence of excess rainfall, floods and waterlogging is increasing due to climate change. At present, about 1.5 million hectares of land in Bangladesh is flooded every year. The average annual rainfall in Bangladesh is 2300 mm and varies from 1200 mm (south-west) to 5000 mm (northeast) depending on the region. According to a study, due to climate change, the amount of rainfall in Bangladesh is increasing and the average annual rainfall is expected to increase by 10-15 percent in 2030 and about 27 percent in 2075.
Impact of Drought in Agriculture
Drought occurs in an area where the rate of evaporation is higher than the rainfall. Agricultural drought refers to the disruption of biological activity due to lack of water in any stage of the crop life cycle due to increased and decreased weather regulation such as rainfall, temperature, air humidity, evaporation etc. If there is no rain for 15 consecutive days between April and mid-November, there is a possibility of drought.
Drought is one of the most common natural disasters in agriculture. Every year 30 to 40 lakh hectares of land is affected by various levels of drought. Lack of average rainfall during the growth stage of the plant causes dehydration in the soil, which damages the plant. Aman paddy is cultivated in 70% of the 63 lakh hectares of cultivable land in the country affected by various levels of drought. In addition, drought-affected Aus and Boro paddy, jute, pulses and oil crops, potatoes, winter vegetables, and sugarcane. Drought in March-April makes it difficult to prepare the land for cultivation. As a result, sown aman, aus, and jute cannot be cultivated in time.
Drought in May-June damages Aman, Aus and Boro paddy, jute, pulses and oil crops, potatoes, winter vegetables, and sugarcane. Drought in March-April makes it difficult to prepare the land for cultivation, so down aman, aus and jute cannot be cultivated in time. It in May-June damages Aman, Aus and Jute crops sown in Ayman. Excessive rainfall in August hinders the cultivation of transplanted aman. September-October low rainfall reduces the production of sown and transplanted aman paddy and delays the cultivation of pulses and potato crops. Fruit trees like jackfruit, litchi, banana etc. die due to excessive drought. There is also a shortage of potable water during the dry season due to reduced navigability of rivers and canals and increased rate of perspiration of trees.
Harmful Effects of Temperature in Agriculture
Rising temperatures will reduce the yield of upland rice and increase the incidence of wheat diseases. Wheat cultivation will not be possible in Bangladesh if the temperature rises by 2 degrees Celsius than at present. If the temperature at the time of flowering from the young of the rice plant is 35 degrees Celsius or higher and at a very low temperature (below 20 degrees Celsius) the number of grains can be reduced. If there is too much heat during flowering or pollination, the number of cheetahs will be higher than in the case of the thorax. Rising temperatures and increasing levels of carbon dioxide disrupt the normal growth of rice plants, turn yellow, weaken seedlings, and prolong crop life. As a result of climate change, the incidence of insects and various plant diseases is increasing.
Saltwater Infiltration and Salinity Increase in Agriculture also Have Detrimental Effects
Saltwater infiltration is a serious problem in Bangladesh. In 1973, 15 million hectares of land were affected by mild salinity, which increased to 25 million hectares in 1997. At present, its area is about 30 million hectares. The amount of saline land in the coastal areas is increasing due to the obstruction of water flow from upstream and low rainfall, which will create more problems in the future due to an increase in temperature and lack of moderate rainfall. The total coastal area of Bangladesh is about 25 million hectares, of which about 10.50 million hectares are currently affected by various levels of salinity.
Harmful Effects of River Erosion and Land Erosion on Agriculture
According to the survey of the Water Development Board in Bangladesh, 1,200 km so far. The riverbank is broken and another 500 km. Facing erosion. Satellite imagery shows that from 1982 to 1992, 1,06,300 hectares of river banks were eroded, compared to only 19,000 hectares of new land. If climate change continues, this balance of brokenness will become more apparent.